As we all know, high-rise point-style buildings are generally dominated by small-sized dwellings. In order to fully take into account the rights of all residents on the same floor to share sunlight, buildings generally do not adopt the traditional north-to-south layout. Otherwise, north-facing houses that will never see sunlight will have problems in sales. For high-rise households with uneven sun illumination around and limited solar radiation energy, it is recommended to use the balcony wall-mounted solar electric-water heater that is currently on the market with horizontal vacuum tubes, or the so-called horizontal flat plate combination with water inlet and outlet on the same side. Responsible business hype. In fact, the existing so-called horizontal vacuum tubes on the market, or horizontal plates with water inlet and outlet on the same side, have problems in the system circulation heat exchange mechanism, resulting in low thermal efficiency of the system. Insufficient, so that this type of solar + electric water heater running in parallel with the electric water heater cannot effectively improve the solar thermal contribution rate of solar energy in the thermal utilization of the system. Moreover, this kind of system is expensive; second, it occupies a large area of effective use of the family; third, the solar collector of this traditional structure itself does not have the basics of sewage discharge, anti-freezing, anti-scaling, anti-hail, and anti-fall. Safe and secure. Thus, simply positioning it as a new product specifically for high-rise building applications is hype that lacks scientific basis.
Can high-rise and super high-rise point buildings be solved by installing a roof sharing system? For a traditional solar water heater household system, taking the system with an average hot water output of 160L~200L as an example, each set needs to be equipped with at least 24-30 1800×Φ58 vacuum tubes; or a traditional flat-panel collector of about 4m2: Calculate the installation angle based on the local latitude , each household system occupies an average roof plane of at least about 7m2. Calculated according to the average building area of 100m2, without considering the effective area of the roof occupied by the water tank, after deducting the shade range of the parapet, all the roofs are used to install collectors, which can only meet up to 13 floors (13 floors). ×7=91m2); that is to say, under the existing technical conditions of solar collectors, it is impossible for high-rise buildings with more than 13 floors to have enough roof planes to install solar water heaters for other floors. This is why the local governments of all provinces and cities in China have issued documents invariably, only emphasizing the fundamental reason why solar water heaters must be installed in buildings below 12 floors.
To install solar energy collection devices on the facades of high-rise and super-high-rise buildings, it is necessary to realize the collection and storage separation of water heaters in terms of solar thermal utilization technology, so that thermal insulation hot water storage tanks can enter the home according to the building load-bearing requirements. Concealed installation. On the one hand, it can reduce the water tank occupying more roof area; on the other hand, it is also to avoid visual pollution and safety hazards caused by the water tank. The traditional natural circulation solar water heating system, whether it is a flat plate type or a vacuum tube type: so far, it has not been able to break through this technical obstacle, and although the forced circulation system can realize the separation of collection and storage, the circulation pipe network is complicated in practice. , it is also inseparable from the auxiliary energy to provide the strong cycle power required by high-rise buildings, and the higher production and operation cost burden. In addition, high-rise buildings have objective difficulties such as high water pressure, high wind pressure, short sunshine, high technical difficulties, and limited places where collectors can be installed on the facade of buildings. Therefore, many uncertain factors and risks are added to the use of such traditional technology products in high-rise and super high-rise buildings. The real difficulty in solving solar hot water supply for high-rise and super-high-rise buildings is that there is no solar collector that can efficiently output 120L~ High-efficiency heat collection function of 45℃~50℃ domestic hot water above 150L. Therefore, the main tasks we are currently facing are: first, to technically develop an anchorage system that can adapt to the realization of building-integrated anchorage installation on the facades of high-rise and super-high-rise buildings, and has the ability to resist wind, frost and hail. , Anti-fall, ultra-thin, ultra-light, high-strength overall structure, a new generation of system-integrated solar collector-hot water devices that can perform high-efficiency instantaneous heat collection, and can be simply combined into a set of all-weather under various installation conditions Only a high-efficiency hot water collection system to ensure heating can fundamentally solve the problem of collecting solar radiation energy on the facade of high-rise buildings. In fact, only by adopting the new technology of solar collector-water heater system integration, can the large-volume thermal insulation hot water storage tank be broken down into pieces and entered into each floor according to the architectural design requirements, and become shared by all households on the same floor. The small and medium-sized system should be concealed and placed at a low position in the load-bearing part of the public aisle building in the stairwell, so that it does not occupy or less occupy the valuable home building area of the user. Secondly, it is necessary to break through the development of the function of constant pressure heating of hot water in non-pressure heat preservation hot water storage tanks to meet the minimum requirements for 24-hour hot water supply guarantee. Thirdly, it is necessary to develop a new water-saving and energy-saving technology that solves the problem of automatic secondary circulation heating of the residual water in the pipeline, and realizes the “valve open, hot water”. Finally, the system has to realize the telemetry and remote management technology that can effectively detect, monitor, maintain and measure the operation of the system without going to the door of the household. Through the integration and innovation of the above-mentioned series of key technologies, the research and development of new technologies and products for the integrated floor network mutual benefit solar water heating system in high-rise buildings can be completed. Realize the heating goal of “sunshine sharing, mutual aid network, each take what they need, metering and charging”.
In September 2010, approved by the Ministry of Science and Technology Innovation Fund for SMEs After two years of hard work, we successfully developed a new product development and research of “water system”, which is between the shared hot water system on the roof of the multi-storey building and the domestic water heater. A complete set of new technologies for the floor network mutual aid solar hot water system for high-rise households to supply domestic hot water 24 hours a day. This innovative system makes up for the lack of corresponding solar water heating technology products in high-rise and super-high-rise buildings in modern cities in China.
The innovation of the project lies in the development of a new patented product of flat-plate system integrated solar collector-water heater as a floor system solar energy collection device using the new technology of tube-plate natural circulation system integration with independent intellectual property rights, and anchored by a special tripod ; or inlaid and installed on any roof plane, balcony guardrail, window sill above and below, or between left and right that can directly irradiate the sun; according to the requirements of building integration coordination, these are fully coordinated with the geometric size and color tone of the corresponding part of the building. The collector-water heater will not only become a brand-new landscape on the facade of the building, but also because a single board is an ultra-thin and ultra-light structure, it has the function of constant temperature and water supply, efficient instantaneous heat collection, and relatively independent operation of the natural circulation of the sun. Hot water system, so as long as we fully develop and utilize the roof plane, and then install a number of solar collectors-water heaters on the facade of the building that can be exposed to sunlight at different times around the building. With cooperation, a set of solar hot water collection and supply system can be formed that is enough to protect all residents of more than 30-storey 100-meter high-rise buildings, “sunshine sharing, network mutual assistance, each take what they need, and metered payment”.
The solar collectors-water heaters are uniformly installed at specific positions on the exterior facades of each high-rise building. Cold water is metered and taken from the nearby residents. stored in the tank. The hot water in the insulated water tank enters the hot water distribution pipe network of each household through the household hot water meter for use by the households. Each floor system is equipped with a small (3P-5P) heat pump to ensure that the minimum quantity of up-to-standard standby hot water per household is stored in the thermal insulation water tank at any time, so that the floor residents can use it 24 hours a day and night. Floor households measure their water consumption through the hot water meter and pay the corresponding fees (including the electricity consumption of the floor heat pump and the depreciation fee of the solar energy system in the current month). Go to the household to provide cold water to the relevant solar collector-water heater nearby and calculate the difference after metering.
Compared with household balcony water heaters, the system has the following characteristics: First, it can solve the problems of uneven sunlight illumination, insufficient heat production, or lack of sunlight resources for single-family single-family buildings in point-type high-rise buildings. Second, it is much less expensive than a home balcony-type hot water system with electric auxiliary energy (heat pump or electric water heater); operating costs and energy consumption are lower; and it does not occupy the valuable effective indoor floor area of the family; and do not need to maintain it yourself manage. Third, it solves the problems of family travel, long-term unattended solar system, water pollution caused by stagnant water and early damage to the system. Fourth, it has created a new concept of solar energy culture of sunshine sharing, network mutual assistance, energy saving and water saving, sharing and sharing, and harmonious coexistence. Fifth, the highest goal of ensuring the supply of low-cost all-weather 24-hour domestic hot water is achieved. Compared with the traditional roof sharing system, the floor network mutual aid system creatively solves the problems of different floors, different water flow pressure differences, long cooling pipes, low-level users bear a large number of pipes for heat dissipation and waste water, and waste water resources. From the perspective of building integration requirements, a large-tonnage (pressure-bearing or non-pressure-bearing) heat preservation water tank is bound to be exposed outside the parapet of the building roof, causing visual pollution and safety hazards. In addition, it simplifies the heat dissipation of the remaining water from the hot water pipe. The long-standing problems such as the secondary circulation heating of the pipeline and the waste of waste water in the pipeline. Sixth, after the high-drop pressure-bearing system caused by the potential of high-rise buildings is transformed into a non-pressure-bearing floor network mutual aid system, it not only greatly simplifies the system structure, improves the safety of the system, but also greatly reduces the system. manufacturing and operating costs.
The concept of “sunshine sharing, network mutual assistance, each taking what he needs, and metering and paying” not only provides a new solution for the solar thermal utilization of various high-rise and super high-rise civil buildings in the construction of modern cities, but also provides a new It can also be fully transplanted and applied to townhouses with different orientations and orientations.
For the whole high-rise building, the development and utilization of the roof plane is an indispensable prerequisite; the hot water produced by the rooftop solar hot water system should be based on the principle of taking care of both ends, except that the hot water produced every day should be given priority. In addition to supplying the uppermost floors with the principle of “closest” and “maximum”, the key point is to fully take care of the basic needs of domestic hot water for households on several floors where there is insufficient sunlight at the bottom of the building. The rest of the users who are located in the middle of high-rise buildings with sunny floors shall install the floor network mutual benefit solar hot water heating system in a planned way to meet the reasonable demands of households on all floors for domestic hot water. The principle of installing the floor network mutual aid system is: sunlight is collected from the upper floor, the water tank is placed in the middle floor, and the hot water is supplied to the next floor. The pipelines are all pre-buried, and the supervision does not enter the household. The system is managed by the property, and the water fee is measured and collected.