As far as the existing technical field of solar energy is concerned, the function and quality of the existing solar energy products in China, strictly speaking, cannot fully meet the requirements of realizing building integration in the true sense. It is also necessary to overcome a series of key technologies and develop some special functions A new generation of solar high-tech products is only possible to better achieve this goal. At present, there are at least the following technical problems that need to be solved in front of us:
First, the natural circulation solar hot water system realizes the separation of collection and storage, and the water tank is installed at a low position in the home, which is the difficulty and key point that must be overcome in the integration of the building.
Covering a large area on a sloping roof; erecting a top-heavy high-level large-scale thermal insulation circulating hot water storage tank on a flat roof; or installing a natural circulation household solar energy device by riding over the roof, hanging on the ridge, or standing on the roof. The goal of building integration is completely different. Similarly, piling up a batch of disorderly assembled water tanks on the flat roof, so that pedestrians on the road can clearly see the water tank group, not only detrimental to the style and taste of the building, but also these temporarily added illegal buildings, there are serious safety hazards. Therefore, it can be said that the existing traditional natural circulation system solar water heaters, using non-anchored erection methods, and randomly assembled on the roof in any way, are fake and inferior works that violate the concept and requirements of building integration.
There is only one way to solve this problem, that is, the core component of the natural circulation system, the high-level thermal insulation circulating hot water storage tank, must be completely separated from storage and storage. At least it can no longer be exposed anywhere directly visible outside the geometric envelope of the building. If this is not achieved, it cannot be called the realization of the basic requirements of building integration.
Second, the research of high-efficiency system integration new technology products and the development of advanced industrialized production technology are the premise and key to the development of solar heat utilization and building integration technology.
The solar thermal utilization system is a household durable consumer product that is completely exposed to harsh climatic conditions; the system structure is simple and compact, the components must have clear functions, the operation must be safe and reliable, the products must be standardized and unified, and the interchangeability of components must be strong: in daily use, it must be “Fool operation”, high security, high stability, low maintenance. All this is not only the goal pursued by mature technologies, but also a necessary prerequisite for the realization of solar building integration.
At present, the plate-type forced circulation system that is widely used and the traditional natural circulation system widely promoted and applied, including the plate-type and vacuum tube system, are not as good as the existing residential buildings in China, strictly speaking. popular. The former system is too complicated, and the installation and use costs are too high; although the latter has been popularized and applied in a large area with hundreds of millions of sets in China for ten years, practice has proved that the visual pollution caused by it is very harmful to the modern urban and rural architectural landscape. The destruction of the system, as well as several inherent shortcomings of the system, are technical defects that cannot be ignored and must be seriously and thoroughly solved.
Comprehensive analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the above two series of products, we believe that on the basis of the natural circulation system, inherit its excellent quality, and then absorb the reasonable core of the forced circulation system control, carry out new integration innovation, optimize the system structure, and integrate the natural circulation system. It is the shortcut to develop new technology products of building integration with Chinese characteristics. Practice has proved that the new technology of integrating solar collector-water heater and vacuum tube natural circulation system, which was first developed and completed by Kunming Nankai Energy Research Institute, has broken through the shackles of the natural circulation system by the high-level thermal insulation heat storage circulating water tank and realized the In the true sense, the installation angle can be adjusted on demand, and the system is efficient and natural circulation.” The problem of concealed installation of heat and water tanks when entering the home. It is believed that with the realization of large-scale industrialization, it will surely make a historic innovation contribution to the realization of the goal of building integration of solar energy in China.
Third, the breakthrough in the automatic time-delayed emptying of system pipes and networks and the automatic regulation of water consumption and network mutual aid, as well as the development of active or passive secondary circulation heating functions for system cooling water, are to achieve building integration and save water. resources, the need of the era to build a well-off, economical and harmonious society.
In the current era we live in, due to the increase in population, economic development, depletion of fossil energy and destruction of the ecological environment, there is a global shortage of freshwater resources. More than half of mainland China is lacking in water resources, and the per capita availability of freshwater resources in the country , less than half of the world’s per capita resources. Therefore, the development of a water-saving solar hot water system is one of the most urgent tasks at present. Using physical principles to realize automatic delayed emptying of the solar pipeline system in a passive state can not only save hot water resources, but also be conducive to thermal insulation, Antifreeze. In addition, the heat dissipation residual water in the low-level thermal insulation hot water storage tank is active, especially the development of passive secondary circulation heating technology, which is one of the difficult problems for the successful promotion and application of building integration. As long as one of the above problems is not completely solved, it may become a stumbling block for building integration. Kunming Nankai Energy Research Institute has successfully developed new patented technologies such as venting water stop valve, jet tee, floor network mutual benefit solar water heating system in high-rise buildings and the promotion and application of products, which has laid a solid technology for solving the above problems. Base.
Fourth, leak-proof and simple anchoring installation of tiled sloping roofs: the building facade is windproof, earthquake-resistant, anti-slip, and a breakthrough in wall-mounted technology; Overcome the bottleneck.
Strictly speaking, civil buildings with sloping roofs and 100-meter high-rise buildings in modern cities represent the development direction of Chinese civil architecture in different historical periods and cover the development of modern Chinese residential buildings. If we can solve the technology of building integration of solar energy for civil buildings, which has the cultural characteristics and representativeness of the times in these two categories, theoretically speaking, there is no bigger problem that cannot be overcome. Due to the poor structural strength of civil buildings with tiled sloping roofs, especially on tiled sloping roofs, it is neither possible to weld metal components, punch holes, nor pre-embed anchor bolts; On the roof, simple anchoring installation is enough to prevent wind, leak, earthquake, and anti-fall. The installation technology of solar collector-power generation equipment, it should be said that the problem of installing solar energy on all similar sloping roofs is no longer a problem.
The difficulty of using solar energy in a 100-meter high-rise building is that only the existing roof area of the flat roof cannot accommodate the solar heat collection equipment that needs to be installed in the entire building. Therefore, various local governments will announce at the same time: (only required) Buildings below 12 floors must install solar water heaters. As for high-rise buildings with 12 floors and above, can solar energy be installed? To achieve this goal, we must solve: the technical difficulties of installing high-efficiency solar heat collector or power generation equipment on the wall of the building’s facade; the research and development of high-efficiency solar collectors integrated in the natural circulation system; Breakthroughs in three technologies, including the technical development of the distribution system, are the key measures to realize solar hot water supply in high-rise buildings. The kind of ordinary flat-panel collectors with water inlet and outlet on the same side or the all-glass vacuum tube installed horizontally and horizontally: the so-called balcony type or window sill type natural circulation solar water heater is combined with an electric heating water tank. It is claimed that the realization of the so-called high-rise building solar hot water supply is completely irresponsible commercial deception to consumers. To test the practicability and reliability of the above-mentioned system, it is only necessary to cut off the power supply of the electric heater of the water tank, and continuously monitor the actual produced water temperature and hot water output of the system for several days, and then the correct conclusion can be drawn.
From the perspective of architectural design, architects have an inescapable responsibility for realizing the integration of solar buildings. Because in the architectural design or construction, the installation of solar energy equipment is not considered, the installation position of the collector and the load-bearing water tank is not reserved, and the anchoring interface of the solar water supply and drainage pipes, control pipelines and anchor screws is not pre-buried, it cannot be regarded as a Complete energy-saving building design. Architectural designers cannot and should not leave the problem of solar energy utilization in the major issue of building energy conservation to solar energy manufacturers. But then again, China’s architectural design institutes, a considerable proportion of architectural designers, have basically never been involved, nor have practical experience in the design and construction of solar water heating systems, nor do they understand the development of new solar water heating technologies. It is completely unreasonable to require architects to pre-design for the promotion and application of a particular new product. Therefore, to ensure the orderly progress of solar building integration work, the government or industry organizations are obliged to formulate a number of unified technical standards for solar building installation and application specifications for solar water heating systems: and there must be an open and Clear division of labor positioning. For example: it is necessary to expressly stipulate that the space within the parapet of the pitched roof, the flat roof or the balcony guardrail; the horizontal or vertical transition space between two adjacent windows, etc.; the area where the sun is exposed; or it may be used to install solar heat collection or power generation Other parts of the equipment should be clearly delineated by the architect in the architectural design, from the perspective of the overall appearance of the building, as the part reserved for the installation of solar collectors: and give the relevant geometric dimensions of the collector, even Specific requirements for color tone and installation method. At the same time, in the design of water supply and drainage, the pre-embedded lines and interface positions of the cold and hot water pipes, as well as the contact positions and standard dimensions of the anchoring feet of the solar device, are arranged. Immediately, solar energy experts are invited to intervene to coordinate the system structure and system operation mode with the architects, the selection of related equipment and the technical scheme of the specific installation process. Only in this way can the planning and design and equipment selection process of solar building integration in the true sense be completed.
As for the installation of solar building integrated equipment, especially for solar equipment that needs to be installed on the 100-meter high-rise or super high-rise building facade, not every solar equipment manufacturer has, or must have the ability to The construction ability to implement the construction and installation qualification for this project operation. Strictly speaking, similar projects of high-rise and super-high-rise solar installations should generally be handed over to a professional technical team with experience in high-altitude exterior wall operations of high-rise buildings (such as exterior wall cleaning companies) to ensure safe and efficient completion of installation tasks. All in all, building integration of solar energy is a brand-new hot topic that involves a wide range of aspects, and cannot tolerate those big and small, but all small but lack of professional technical practice experience. It is a complex system project that can be perfectly realized only through the joint participation of existing enterprise groups with different professional and technical expertise, and the alliance between honest enterprises with detailed division of labor. Building integration of solar energy must put an end to commercial fraud that is adulterated with fakes, and must use strict technical quality standards to eliminate flashy and false hype.