How to construct, manage and service distributed power stations?

How to construct, manage and service distributed power stations?

At present, what actionable policy measures and management methods should the government take to alleviate the crisis in response to the overcapacity rescue operation of China’s solar photovoltaic industry? Under the current conditions, the most effective way to develop China’s photovoltaic solar cell application market is to fully mobilize two enthusiasms. In addition to the state’s investment in energy construction, continue to increase the proportion of investment in new energy and renewable energy. and renewable energy as a percentage of the national energy supply. At the same time, we must vigorously advocate and actively introduce private social capital and personal hot money as an investment project for energy conservation and emission reduction, rectification of atmospheric haze pollution, and strengthening of new energy infrastructure, and encourage and support corporate entities and individuals in various industries. , invest in the construction of distributed power stations of various scales. The so-called “distributed power station” includes grid-connected photovoltaic systems built by power end users or relatively independent photovoltaic power supply equipment, as well as multi-energy complementary micro-grid power generation systems. According to the scope delineated by the National Energy Administration’s Distributed Power Generation Management Measures, distributed power generation devices refer to those located in the vicinity of electricity users and can be connected to the large power grid nearby. Decentralized and small-scale power generation facilities for comprehensive utilization of new or renewable energy and resources; or multi-generation systems with power output and cascade utilization of energy, photovoltaics, Multi-energy power generation projects such as wind power and biogas. The “Million Roofs Project” implemented in the United States and the “One Hundred Thousand Roofs Project” carried out by Germany and Japan are all effective measures to encourage private capital to develop domestic distributed power stations. The establishment of distributed power stations can not only solve the problem of power shortage in countries or regions, but also effectively protect the environment and reduce carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions. To build a distributed power station, first of all, there is no problem of occupying a large amount of land resources; the system is mainly installed on the roof, outer wall of the own building and the existing courtyard of the user. Secondly, there is no problem of long-distance transmission and storage of power, so there is no need for boosting equipment and large power storage devices. Again, operation management generally does not need to set up full-time personnel. Distributed power stations can effectively improve the self-sufficiency rate of power supply and the safety of electricity consumption. Distributed power plants have mature technology, are safe and reliable, and are easy to manage. The scale can be set as needed, which can be large or small, so the development potential is huge. Finally, the construction of distributed power stations is completely a civil behavior; enterprises or individuals build, spontaneously, and use themselves without occupying public social resources, and the remaining part can also make up for the shortage of social electricity consumption.

To start the “construction climax” of distributed power stations, first of all, local governments at all levels must, under the guidance of the scientific development concept, seek truth from facts according to the situation of solar resources in various places: as well as the actual needs of power development; The Local Implementation Rules, in the form of local government people’s congress legislation, formulate an operable, complete and transparent incentive mechanism for long-term sustainable development: through corresponding legislative procedures, to ensure that there is no change of government, or related interest departments Selfish interests lead to the occurrence of the phenomenon of systemic “intestinal obstruction”. Establish non-individual, prosecuted legal guarantees and safe grid connection methods; determine a long-term relatively stable preferential on-grid electricity price for distributed power stations; and the operation and maintenance subsidy quota for distributed power stations in the later stage of operation: to relieve private investors and builders of worries. Use the local government’s original “platoon” to engage in the “Golden Sun Project”, special subsidies for “upstream” photovoltaic cell manufacturers, as well as special funds for preventing air pollution and restoring the ecological environment, and using another way to motivate photovoltaic cells “downstream” Social and private capital builds distributed power plants, realizes the new energy application market that expands the consumption of photovoltaic products, and fundamentally initiates and cultivates the potential domestic demand (market) of photovoltaic cells in China; steadily promotes the development of distributed photovoltaic power plants of various scales and goals. construction and development. The funds needed to implement the project policy can also refer to the fund-raising model of the state’s construction of the “Three Gorges Power Station” to raise and support the construction of distributed power stations by adding a fraction to the conventional energy price or the environmental protection fee for preventing air pollution and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. , Preferential on-grid electricity price required for maintenance and funds raised for at least 20 years before and after the subsidy for later operation and maintenance.

The distribution and utilization mode of renewable energy depends on the inherent decentralized and distributed characteristics of renewable energy. It will also bring unprecedented opportunities for the development of new manufacturing technologies in the future, and promote distributed changes in production and business models. From the perspective of development trends in China and abroad, the construction of social public power stations, from a high concentration to a distributed layout, is a necessity for social development and progress. It is also a new model for developing regional and county economies. In view of the current severe energy supply and development trends, we should innovate the theory and practice of new energy or renewable energy industry development in a targeted manner.

During the treatment of Dianchi Lake, the government of Jinning County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province carried out “four retreats, three rings and one protection” to restore the wetlands around Dianchi Lake and comprehensively control the water pollution of Dianchi Lake. In order to relocate people from the wetlands along the lake, a brand-new Zhonghe Community in Kunyang Town was built in the open area far from the lake shore. In order to solve the problem of electricity consumption and livelihood of the butchers in the community in a timely manner: through the BOT method, funds were introduced to simultaneously install a set of solar distributed photovoltaic power stations with an installed capacity of 759.24kW on the roofs of 16 public buildings in the community. : The photovoltaic pool area of ​​the solar distributed power station is 10093.6m2; the annual power generation is 1 million kWh. It is specially responsible for the lighting and power supply of all commercial shops and other public service systems in the newly built community (including the clubhouse, police station, health clinic, vegetable market, shops and some shops on the ground floor); in principle, the electricity generated by the power station is self-generated and used for its own use. It was completed in August 2012 and passed the joint acceptance of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development and the Ministry of Finance. The entire distributed power station project is designed and invested by Yunnan Wanfuhang Energy Conservation Co., Ltd.; Yunnan Pinsen Technology Co., Ltd. is responsible for the construction and daily maintenance management of the entire project. The estimated life of the power station is 30 years. The power station can reduce carbon dioxide emissions of 837.09t, sulfur dioxide 25.06t, and smoke and dust of 228.57t every year: the annual saving of standard coal is 335.84t, which is equivalent to planting 457 trees.

Yunnan Pinsen Jinning Distributed Power Station
Figure 1 Yunnan Pinsen Jinning Distributed Power Station

As the first pilot distributed power station project in Yunnan Province and Southwest China, the project is a pilot distributed power plant project with comprehensive application of solar photovoltaic, solar thermal, energy saving and environmental protection, intelligent and digital technology in a newly built residential community; it has achieved a good demonstration effect. The project focuses on the comprehensive trial demonstration of a series of related new technologies and new products such as solar on-grid, off-grid, solar water heaters and heat pumps, solar commercial power supply and lighting power supply, energy-saving lamps and LED lamps. The project has made a positive and beneficial exploration of building an environmentally friendly and sustainable ecological green community. In accordance with the leading ideology of China’s “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” for Renewable Energy Development, and in the spirit of “connecting to the Internet nearby, local consumption, active, stable, and orderly development”, the construction of distributed grid-connected buildings is mainly based on “spontaneous self-use”. Principles of photovoltaic power plants: This item has played a good typical demonstration role. After the completion of the project, it has attracted extensive attention from all parties. As of October 2013, the cumulative number of visiting and learning people has exceeded 50,000. In order to solve the long-term concerns of users such as project financing, post-project management, operation, and maintenance, the BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) construction model was innovatively introduced and achieved success. The construction materials of the power station use the most efficient and mature products in China, which ensures the long-term stable operation of the power station. In the field installation and construction of the power station, taking into account the economy and ease of operation and maintenance management, BAPV (Building Attached Photovoltaic) building integration technology is boldly adopted. Effectively achieved the effects of thermal insulation, ventilation, lowering the wall temperature, and reducing the cooling load of the air conditioner. It is worth mentioning that the solar energy structure on the second floor of the community clubhouse fully considers the full combination with the architectural style and the surrounding environment. The bracket adopts the original structure of “reverse support”, which not only maximizes the area of ​​solar energy installed The battery also has the effect of shading and insulating the top layer of the building. The project was supported by the 2012 Science and Technology SME Innovation Fund of the Ministry of Science and Technology. If you are also interested in battery knowledge, please visit tycorun.com.

The use of administrative policies and regulations to formulate development plans and goals, and encourage enterprises and individuals to build distributed power plants is a necessary condition for catalyzing the development and growth of China’s photovoltaic market. Some experts estimate that the total roof area of ​​buildings that can be installed with photovoltaic systems in Chinese cities is about 18.5 billion m2. Calculated by installing 60W per m2, as long as 20% of the roof is used to install distributed power stations, 220 million kW of photovoltaic power generation can be formed. ability. It is on the basis of vigorously promoting and developing the construction of non-governmental distributed power plants and obtaining a reliable power supply guarantee in the society that Germany proposes to eliminate nuclear power plants. If China wants to implement the “Ten Thousand Roofs Plan”, the government must first start from macro needs, formulate medium and long-term development plans and related policy incentive mechanisms, and guide and encourage investors to invest in the direction of capital. Ensuring the continuity and stability of relevant laws and regulations in the form of legislation can effectively mobilize private capital and invest wealthy funds in new energy and renewable energy projects. Without a complete, scientific, reasonable, transparent and operable incentive mechanism to ensure the minimum return on investor interests, it is difficult to promote the orderly and rapid development of China’s distributed power plant photovoltaic market in China.

Secondly, in order to achieve the goal of mobilizing social and private capital to develop distributed power stations and promote China’s “Ten Thousand Roofs Plan”, the auxiliary measures and sufficient conditions to match the policy incentive mechanism are: it is necessary to immediately start to organize the development of distributed power stations. “Technical Quality Standard” system. There are no rules and no radius. To advance this matter, the technical thresholds and related technical quality standards involving distributed power plants must be synchronized with the follow-up after-sales maintenance, maintenance guarantee clauses and other complete sets of escort measures. And timely publicize it in the form of policies and regulations, so that investors can have a comprehensive and correct evaluation of the investment risks of distributed power plants. In order to relieve investors’ worries, it is also necessary to carry out a series of necessary industrial structure adjustments to China’s existing photovoltaic industry structure and its operating system. China’s current “big and complete, small and complete” operation and management model in which R&D, production, sales, installation, and after-sales service are all done by the same production enterprise; copy of . To a certain extent, this kind of operation and management model is “fancy but not useful”. It seems to be comprehensive and clear, but in practice, there are problems everywhere. Under the general trend of global economicalization, this outdated business philosophy has become unsustainable. Do not engage in system innovation, mechanism innovation, management innovation, carry out specialized division of labor, each has its own expertise, each abide by their own duties, complement each other’s advantages, combine strengths, and develop together; it will inevitably lead to disorderly competition in the market, and it is even more difficult to truly strengthen the industry. make it bigger. If we do not concentrate our efforts on vigorously developing China and face the photovoltaic market directly, that is, specializing in engineering consulting, equipment installation and after-sales service of photovoltaic application technologies and products, that is, photovoltaic technology engineering consulting “modern service industry” in the “downstream” of the photovoltaic cell industry chain “Separate from battery production enterprises; strengthen the development of photovoltaic application markets in China and abroad; improve the market development of new photovoltaic application technology products, and establish a networked and modern new service industry system for professional installation and life-long after-sales service. It is impossible to fundamentally get rid of the crisis faced by more than 180 photovoltaic cell manufacturers across the country and the indiscriminate price competition faced by the same stage, and to revive the healthy development of China’s photovoltaic industry.

The establishment of a networked modern service industry specializing in pre-sale technical consultation for distributed power station customers, in-sale technical exchanges, management personnel training, and after-sale all-round repair and maintenance can not only provide a large number of unemployed college graduates in China every year, but also provide a The new new technology serves the employment channels of the industry; and, from the source, existing solar cell manufacturers will be prevented from rushing around a customer project, disrupting the market, competitive price, cheating, bribery, dishonesty, regardless of after-sales Only by waiting for the occurrence of troublesome events that customers are most afraid of, can the psychological barriers of potential customers be removed, and the “Ten Thousand Roofs Plan” will be truly implemented step by step, for the innovative development of the entire new energy and renewable energy industry, Lay a solid foundation for a networked modern service industry system. The development of China’s solar energy industry (including photovoltaic cells and photothermal vacuum tubes) has come to a critical moment when it is necessary to strengthen the awareness of crisis, consciously restrain the impulse of blind development of production capacity, adjust the industrial structure, transform and upgrade, and strengthen the development and innovation of new technologies.

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